High quality electrical parts info details? Orthogonal frequency division multiple access OFDMA: Friends who are familiar with Wi-Fi should know that the empty port of Wi-Fi adopts orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) modulation, that is, the whole bandwidth is composed of orthogonal subcarriers. In Wi-Fi 6, the 802.11 working group introduced OFDMA access from LTE. The addition of such an “A” word can be said to have brought a qualitative change to the network capacity. As shown in the figure on the left below, Wi-Fi 5-based OFDM can only allocate all the bandwidth in the channel to one user at any one time, even if that user’s data needs do not need to take up all the bandwidth. When other users connect to the network, they need to wait for the next sending opportunity window (TXOP). This is very inefficient in the use of channel resources, especially when there is a significant increase in equipment. Discover even more information at https://www.easybom.com/p/esp8266ex-espressif-systems-1679254.
Then, as demand for cars picks up in the fall of 2020, Toyota Denso Renesa plans to order 28nm semiconductors from TSMC again, but there is no room to produce in-car semiconductors because TSMC lines are occupied by other semiconductors. Although the inventory in the autumn and winter of 2020 exceeded the limit, by 2021, inventory had bottomed out, coupled with the shortage of 28nm semiconductors, cars could not be made. 28nm is the last generation of planar transistors (FinFET from 16 / 14nm to 3D) (2) do not use self-aligned double pattern (SADP) (will use SADP from FinFET) (3) Renesas vertical integration (integrated equipment manufacturer IDM), for example, outsource production to FinFET from this generation. In short, 28nm semiconductors produced by TSMC and other contract factories have a good performance-to-price ratio, so many electronic devices, including automobiles, use this semiconductor. At the invitation of the Japanese government, the TSMC Kumamoto plant, which will begin operation in 2024, will also mainly produce such 28nm semiconductors.
In the early CPUs, the chip integration level was very low. The CPU was a single chip. It only integrated an arithmetic unit and a controller. It could only calculate and control. At this time, the internal capacity of the CPU was useless. Memory, the CPU left The memory cannot be calculated. Back then, there was no memory in the CPU because the memory could not be integrated, and others such as the serial port could not be integrated, so there was only a single CPU. If you need to use the serial port, you need to use a serial port controller chip outside the CPU. The PCB traces are connected to the CPU, and then the entire PCB board is composed of the CPU, and these peripheral chips is called a system board. This system board can communicate with another system board. The CPU communicates with another system through its serial port controller. The serial port controller on the board communicates, and functions such as the serial port controller cannot be integrated into the CPU chip. For example, if the LCD is also used here, it is necessary to add an LCD controller chip to the periphery and connect it to the CPU through wiring. A whole board composed of these chips is called a system board. These UART controllers and LCD controllers are called peripherals. Combining them with the CPU on one board is the function implemented by a current K60 chip, but they are integrated into a small chip. The peripherals here refer to the inside of the system board, the peripherals outside the CPU are called peripherals, the CPU is called the internals, and there are only arithmetic units and controllers inside, which are called internals.
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